Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2


Food Processing Research Center, Khartoum North , Shambat, Sudan
*Faculty of Agriculture, Elzaeem Elazhari University **College of Agricultural Studies, Sudan University of Science and technology.


Abstract: This study was conducted to assess the effect Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 of organic volatile spearmint oil on the storage and processing qualities of potato tubers (^ Solanum tuberosum L.), compared to the widely used chemical sprout inhibitor, isopropyl–N 3-chlorophenyl carbamate (CIPC).

In Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 this study; sound, well cured and disease free tubers of the processing potato varieties, Diamant and Sinora, were packed in jute sacks and stored at 10±1°C and (73-78% RH). Spearmint oil was applied Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 to a 10 cm filter-paper disk attached to the lid of the potato container, repeatedly, every 45 days during the six months storage period. The CIPC was applied manually at the rate of 2 kg per Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 ton of potato. Potato tubers were tested for culinary quality, sprouts initiation and emergence percentage, length of sprouts, fresh weight loss, dry matter content, specific gravity, reducing sugars, chips yield, and the Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 acceptability of chips and French fries.

The results showed that spearmint oil vapor was comparably effective as CIPC in checking the break of dormancy, fast sprout growth and high fresh Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 weight loss. Spearmint treatments resulted in acceptable potato products without adverse effect on reducing sugars, dry matter, specific gravity and chips yield of the tubers. After six months storage, potatoes were found still suitable for Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 French fries with reducing sugars of <0.5% for both varieties. Sinora tubers treated with spearmint oil and Diamant tubers treated with CIPC were found to be quite suitable for preparation of potato chips Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2. In the consumers preference test for chips, the first choice was for Sinora tubers treated with spearmint oil in cold store, followed by Diamant tubers treated with CIPC. With respect to Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 French fries, first preference was given to Diamant tubers treated with spearmint oil.

Spearmint oil inhibited sprouting of potato tubers without killing the eye buds as caused by CIPC. Accordingly, potato Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 tubers treated with spearmint oil could be used for planting as seed tubers if not needed for processing.


^ Key words: Spearmint, Processing quality, Sprout inhibiting, Potato.


Do phytochemicals produced from Annona squamosa and Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 Catunaregam nilotica considered an organic food?


Sara ElKheir1,2, Abdalbasit Adam Mariod2, and Yousif Mohamed Ahmed2

2Food Science & Technology Department, College of Agricultural Studies, Sudan University of Science & Technology, P.O Box 71 Khartoum Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 North, Sudan.

1Omdurman Islamic University, Faculty of Science and Technology Department of Nutrition and Food Technology.

Abstract

Annona squamosa Catunaregam nilotica are considered an important source for wild fruits in Sudan Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2. The fruits are used mainly for domestic consumption in many states. The oil and protein contents of Annona squamosa and Catunaregam nilotica were 26.8%, 17.5% and 40.0%, 22.2%, respectively. The oils were extracted using cold extraction and Soxhlet Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 extraction methods. Fatty acids and tocopherols were determined by GC-MS and HPLC, respectively. The major fatty acids in A. squamosa oil were oleic 49.2% linoleic 22.3% palmitic 15.6% and stearic 10.6%. While the major fatty Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 acids in Catunaregam nilotica oil were oleic 10.5, linoleic 63.1%, palmitic 9.7%and stearic 5.1%. The tocopherol content of the extracted A. squamosa oil amounted to 16.6 and 15.5 and that of C. nilotica amounted to 110.5 and 107.7mg/100g Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2, respectively, with delta-tocopherol as the predominant tocopherol in A. squamosa oil, and beta-tocopherol in C. nilotica oil. Total amount of amino acids was found to be 7.266 and 14.202 g Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 /100g protein, in A. squamosa and C. nilotica, respectively.

The antioxidant potential of phenolic extracts from leaves, bark, roots and seedcakes of ^ Annona squamosa and Catunaregam nilotica was evaluated the antioxidant Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 activity were strongly potent. The predominant phenolic compounds were identified using advance method of HPLC-DAD.


Antibiotic Residues in Beef and Mutton in Khartoum State


Nazik E. M. Mustafa and Mohammed Sariy Eldin

Department of Food Hygiene Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 and Safety, Faculty of Public and Environmental Health, University of Khartoum P.O. Box 205 Post code 11111 Email:nmmustafa@uofk.edu


The improper use of antibiotics in food producing animals could result in unsafe Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 meat residues. Development of bacterial resistance and allergic reactions in humans are the major risks. Monitoring antibiotic residues is considered important to avoid the occurrence of unsafe levels. The objectives of this Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 study were to observe the incidence of antibiotic residues in beef and mutton in Khartoum State, to know the types of antibiotic encountered and to measure their levels in meat samples.

A Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 total of 74 beef and 78 mutton kidney samples were collected from Omdurman Central Abattoir for monitoring antibiotic residues using a one-plate microbiological method in which agar plates were seeded with Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 Bacillus subtilis BGA spores as a test organism. A questionnaire to investigate the use of antibiotics in food animals and the attitude of livestock owners towards treated animals was distributed among veterinarians Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 in 25 animal health units. The tests showed inhibition activities in 14.90 per cent of the bovine samples and 17.95 per cent of the ovine samples tested. According to the sites in kidney tissue samples Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2, the inhibition diameters were interpreted with pervious prepared control discs containing known concentrations of different antibiotics to quantify the concentrations of residues in meat samples. The study highlights the antibiotic risks Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 that may occur from consumption of beef and mutton in Khartoum State. It is therefore recommended that more attention should be give to such residues by those concerned in the Ministry of Health and Ministries Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 of agriculture and animal resources.


^ Key words: Antibiotic, residues, meat, Khartoum State.


Organic Agriculture and GM Crop Production Systems:

Can they become Mutually Supportive?


Ahmed S. El Wakeel

Ecologist Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 and Forage Agronomist, ARC, Ex-National Biodiversity Coordinator


Organic agriculture is the oldest form of agriculture on earth. Organic farming refers to agricultural production systems used to produce food and fiber. The principles of Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 organic agriculture are established by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM). Certified organic production means production by approved organic methods. However, crops and livestock production are often disassociated from Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 each other, and manures must be imported. Organic food is as safe to consume as any other kind of food. Farmers worldwide managed 32.2 million hectares of agricultural land organically in 2007, nearly 5 percent Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 more than in 2006 and a 118-percent increase since 2000. 2.2 million hectares are certified according to organic standards.  Over the past decade, sales of organic products have shown an annual increase of at least Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 20%, the fastest growing sector of agriculture.

On the other хэнд, Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) constitute synthetic inputs. In 1998, participants at IFOAM's 12th Scientific Conference issued the Mar del Plata Declaration, where Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 more than 600 delegates from over 60 countries voted unanimously to exclude the use of GMOs in food production and agriculture. Nevertheless, cultivation of GM plants continues to increase worldwide. In 2008, GM crops rose by 9.4 per cent Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 to occupy 125 million hectares. GM plants are utilized in 25 countries, of which Bolivia, Burkina Faso and Egypt are the newest. GMOs are very helpful for particular challenges like pests, bad soil, or Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 droughts. Organic growers criminate GM contamination to have cost them valuable markets. Genetic pollution is also blamed for threatening organic production as a whole.

A 2005/2006 FiBL survey showed that Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 organic agriculture in Sudan occupies 200,000 hectares (650 farms) making 0.15% share of the total agricultural area. The evolution of organic agriculture in Sudan began in the late 1990s. Many products can be classified as fully organic Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 but are not certified and are therefore exported under conventional marketing systems. A formal body and policy are needed to organize and certify these products but before that several constraints must be overcome Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2.

Developed countries moved toward organic farming as a lifestyle choice for communities with surplus food and against agricultural technology in general and GM in particular. Effective co-existence between GM crops Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2, conventional and organic agriculture is imperative and has to be dealt with in existing legislation on agriculture, environment, and health and consumer protection and will require additional legislation at the community level and Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 in national laws and regulations.



  1. ECONOMICS +



Actual and Recommended Quantities of Chemicals Used on Vegetable Production in Khartoum State: A Cost Comparison


Fayga Hussien Ballal and Mutasim Mekki Mahmoud Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 Elrasheed

Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agricultural Studies, Sudan University of Science and Technology, P. O. Box 71 Shambat Sudan.

Abstract: This study was conducted on the northern part of Khartoum State (Elshihainab and Wad Ramely Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 villages – Khartoum North) in season 2007, to compare the actual quantities of chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides) used in vegetable production with the recommended packages, besides, determining their impact on the cost Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 of production. Surveying and descriptive statistics methods were used to reach to the stated objectives. Both primary and secondary data sources were used. Non probability sampling technique (snow ball) was used to collect Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 data from (10%) of the total population of each of the two villages. Secondary data were collect from the related institutions, books and periodicals. Results revealed that, all farmers in the study area Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 used chemical fertilizers and pesticides in their farming. About 24% and 40%of them used fertilizers and foliage fertilizer (chemical) more than the recommended packages, respectively. The study also showed that, the quantity of chemical Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 fertilizers used in potato production exceeded the recommended one by 28 kg/feddan (66.7/ha), adding up about 233.3 SDG/feddan (555.5 SDG/ha) to the total costs. But for both onion and tomato production the Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 chemical fertilizers were less than the recommended by 25kg/feddan and 50 kg/feddan, respectively. Further, farmers in Khartoum state do usually use foliage fertilizers which are not recommended for that Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 area. On the other хэнд, while all farmers in the study area used quantities of (Malathion and silveen) pesticides greatly exceed the recommended one, about 26% of them used the (marshal) pesticides more than Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 the required amount. The over all effects of using chemical fertilizers and pesticides inappropriately is additional costs incurred by farmers in vegetable production, reduction of his production and hence his income, negative effect Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 on consumers and producers health and the environment. The study recommends the use of environmental friendly (organic) pesticides and fertilizers, in agriculture production, beside, extensive extension methods should used to Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 enlighten the producers in the study area about the importance and profit gained from organic farming.


Keywords: Fertilizers and pesticides, recommended packages of fertilizers and pesticides, cost of production.


^ Potentiality of Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 Organic Perennial Crops Farms in the River Nile State, SUDAN


Elgailany A. Ahmed1, Hamid H. M. Faki2, Hashim A. Elobeid3


1, 2 Ministry of Science and Technology, Agricultural Economics Research and Policy Center,
3University of Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 Khartoum, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics,

Abstract

A dominant conception is that organic agriculture does not mean turning back the clock to a primitive mode of farming, but it does build on traditional Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 knowledge and practices, what it offers a modern, ecologically intensive farming system that can perform successfully without any synthetic fertilizers or pesticides to meet food security needs and poverty alleviation. In Sudan Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 organic farming was carried out by the Arab Authority for Agricultural Development (2001) to produce food commodities free of agricultural pollutants, mainly for export. The certified organic lands in Sudan was estimated as Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 200,000 hectare and 650 farms, involving different crops such as tropical fruits, nuts, but also cotton, herbs/spices, etc (TWN, 2010). Since organic farming system is feasible for agricultural sub-sector, the aims Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 should be when disseminating the organic farms over the country and maximizing organic production. The paper undertook River Nile State (RNS) of Sudan as a case study. The RNS is considered as one Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 of the main supplier of perennial crops to the country. The production of these crops in the State are faced by numerous constraints namely low level of productivity, high cost of production and Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 inefficiency of resources use. In RNS perennial crops are regarded as essential food and cash crops within the prevailed crop, also they play an important role in sustaining production of farming systems Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 through conserving and investing for cultivable area. The paper aims to investigate the potentiality and feasibility of organic perennial crops in RNS. It was on this basis that a paper was prepared out Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 in RNS. Primary data was collected by using structured questionnaires for (50) randomly selected respondents from area of the study beside secondary data. A partial budget was used to assess and compare the Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 profitability organic and non-organic perennial crops. The results revealed that tenants would get numerous benefits from organic perennial crops compared with non-organic perennial crops. The RNS tenants should therefore Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2, be encouraged to establish organic perennial farms instead of investing on the traditional perennial crop farms and to be guided on how to grow organic products that give production and Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 yield advantages, earn high returns and contributed significantly to farm sustainability and alleviates malnutrition in RNS.

^ Key words: organic farming


Education to Improve Organic Farming


Kwakib M. E. Elnour

College of Agricultural studies, Sudan University of Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 Science and technology


Education in organic farming as in other sections of agriculture, means education to adopt better practices .knowledge dose not necessarily lead to change in behavior, it requires motive and Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 intension to make a change in basic pattern of living.

We may have a lot of scientific information on organic farming or may know well the risks of pesticides and chemical fertilizers in agricultural Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 production and their environmental deterioration, but without being able to apply this knowledge in practice.

There fore, before starting any agricultural development program in the field of organic farming Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2, we must know how we can transfer the required information to users.

This paper is meant to convey a general idea about methods and aids used to help in education for both Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 producer and consumers in the field of organic farming.

Data will be collected through structured questionnaire designed to obtain objectives of the study .The sample studied will cover all teaching assistants and technicians in the Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 College of Agricultural Studies in Sudan University of Science &Technology the data will be entered and analyzed using statistical package for social science (spss) version 11 , then results will be Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 discussed and recommendations drawn to фокус on ways for improving organic farming by using suitable and applicable methods and aids .


^ Optimization of Choosing and Using Farm Machinery for Organic and Conventional Farming Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 Systems by Compromise Programming Technique


Hassan I. Mohammed1, Haithum R. K. El ramlawi2 and Omran M. Abbass1

1-Department of Agricultural Engineering, College of Agricultural Studies, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum-Sudan

2- Centre of Dry land Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 Farming Research and Studies, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Gadaref, Sudan.


Abstract

Selection and using of optimal machinery set for crop production is constraint by the high initial Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 and operating costs of these machines and by the nature of farming system. It is essential if organic farming is to be economically competitive to examine, in economic terms, how the capacity of Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 an optimal field machinery system is affected when a farm converts to organic production. Machinery index and calculation of timeliness factors are integral tools for comparison exercise. A case study was Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 мейд for a typical arable farm in the central clay plains of Gedarief rain fed areas of East Sudan.

To keep the scope manageable, the фокус was on Sorghum crop grown on the most Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 important two farming systems: the organic farming system using culti-planter as of Samsam research station and the high chemical input zero- Machinery costs consist of three parts: direct machine costs, labour Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 costs and timeliness costs. For optimization of farm machinery systems, a method based on compromise programming was used. The optimal size of peak machinery demand, machine index, timeliness costs and energy Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 requirements were used as indicators of evaluation. The main differences in timeliness costs between organic and conventional farming can be attributed to two counteracting facts: the lower yields and the Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 higher product prices in organic farming. Timeliness cost per kg cereal produced was higher in organic production.


Keywords: Organic farming; Conventional farming; Machinery costs; Timeliness; Optimization; Compromise programming.


^ Organic Farming - What is it? Experiences in Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 Australia & Japan


Douglas Graham

Head of Projects (UN World Food Programme) Khartoum – Sudan


Abstract: Why do people become Organic Farmers?

Douglas was born in Australia and grew up on organic dairy farm in Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 Tasmania, Australia. He married a farm girl whose family had been forced to become organic farmers because they couldn’t afford to buy chemical fertilisers after a severe drought. Douglas and his wife bought Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 two farms in the arid area of New South Wales (west of Sydney) and converted and certified both farms as “Organic” (Biological Farmers Association – BFA Australia). They also learnt about Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 bio-dynamic farming (Demeter).

Douglas also had a full-time job as an irrigation engineer and played a major role in rebuilding the Government-owned Murrumbidgee Irrigation Scheme (MIA), similar to the Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 Gezira scheme in Sudan. He helped conduct a scientific study on the synergistic effects of mixed pesticide and herbicides found in irrigation drainage water, which becomes up to 20 times more toxic Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 than the individual chemicals; helped establish a native tree planting program (200,000 trees) to reduce water logging and salinity in the irrigation area; helped establish a co-operative of 15 local organic farmers which turned 15 farms and Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 farming families around from being almost broke and bankrupt, into more contented and happy families with profitable farms, with no debts, and they, in turn, helped other farmers and Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 their families to do the same thing. Generally speaking, all farmers in the co-operative started organic farming because they wanted to produce healthy food for themselves and the community, even if Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 they didn’t make a profit. All wanted to serve humanity and protect the environment in some way. Profit was not their motive. However, if they didn’t make a profit and all Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 went broke, how could the increasing volume of contaminated food in all corners of the world, the gradual destruction of our environment and the final suffocation of the planet be reversed? The Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 15 farmers had reached a deadlock and needed to find out why they were going broke, how they go about fixing the problems, become profitable, work together in a self-supporting and family-supporting way Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 and produce more organic food at an affordable price. Over the years, many people have voiced their concerns about the detrimental effects of so-called modern agriculture involving the Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 use of artificial chemicals – the toxic influence of agro-chemicals on human beings, animals, plants and all kinds of creatures, including micro-organisms in the soil; the soil deterioration and loss of fertility Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 from chemical fertilisers; the control of agricultural materials (even seeds) by a small number of multinational corporations; the uncertainty and risks of genetically modified plants – to name a few.The key in the fact Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2, Douglas found, was that an inner transformation is required, before the external world around us can change. It was an internal-quest that lead Douglas to an international organic Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 growing conference in Japan in 1994. At that conference Douglas learnt about a higher dimension of Organic Farming – spiritual agriculture (Yoko agriculture) – a movement to revive the land, which entails purifying ourselves and the land with Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 Universal Energy or God’s Light, addressing plants and all living things with positive and encouraging words, using organic compost, and preserving traditional seed varieties of plants suitable for organic Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 farming. .

This paper explores the reasons why people become organic farmers; the steps to take to become an organic farmer; outlines the questions we all ask along the path to becoming Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 an organic farmer; and learning how to be open enough to work with Nature and apply the practical lessons provided by Nature in our every-day lives. At some time we will Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 also search for answers to the really Big Questions about Life. Firstly we ask, is Organic Farming: A Farming Method; A Business; A Way of Life; A Spiritual Quest, or An Integrated and Intercommunicating combination Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 of all these? In reality and fundamentally is organic farming: One World, One Tree and One Life Force?


  1. POSTERS



Evaluation of Flame Emission Apparatus and Comparison with the Recommended Pre-emergence Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 Herbicides to Control Weed in Faba Bean


^ Alaeldin M. Elhassan, Khalifa A. Khalifa & Hassan S. Abbas

College of Agricultural studies, Sudan University of Science and technology


Abstract

Two experiments were conducted for two consecutive seasons Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 (2004-2005) and (2005-2006) at Hudeiba Research Station Farm; Nile River State – Sudan, to evaluate a flame weeding apparatus using liquefied petroleum gas LPG. The other experiment was designed to compare the flame weeding with Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 the recommended pre-emergence herbicides to control weed in faba bean.

The performance of the designed apparatus in term of weed control was very satisfactory and gave a promising efficiency and economic Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 feasibility. The best results were obtained under optimum operating conditions which are 4.5 cm inner diameter burner head; 12 cm burner height with 30° angle and 11 m/min walking speed. The mean of weeding efficiency for Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 the two consecutive seasons to control grasses and broad leaved at 4 weeks after sowing was 72.7% and 77.8% respectively in regards to comparing the flame weeding method with the recommended pre-emergence herbicides statistical analysis Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 shows that there was no significant difference in total weeding efficiency in the first season between the two methods. In the contrary there was significant difference in the second season Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2. This difference can be attributed to more number of grasses weed and the difference ability to each method to control grasses as flame weeding appear higher efficiency to control broad leaved than grasses Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 which has sheath works as a protector.

In the two experiments the grain yield of faba bean flamed at 4 weeks after sowing was comparable with the yield of pre-emergence herbicide in Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 the two seasons.


^ THE PRODUCTION OF HYTHIEN BEAN

UNDER ORGANIC FARMING SYSTEM


Elamin Abdelmagid Elamin and Nafisa Hassan Mohamed Ali Department of Soil and Environment Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Shambat, University of Khartoum - Sudan


Abstract Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2: An experiment was carried out for two consecutive summer seasons (2005 - 2006) in the Demonstration Farm – Faculty of Agriculture - Shambat - University of Khartoum to investigate the effect of organic manure (farmyard (FYM) and Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 chicken (CHM) manures) at different levels on the growth attributes of hyathien bean (Dolicus lablab). The treatments were comprised of FYM at the rate of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 tons/ha; and CHM at the Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 rate of 0; 2 and 4 tons/ha. The design was split-plot design, the main plot was farm yard manure and the sub-plot was chicken manure. The parameters studied included: fresh and dry Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 weight of shoot and root number of branches and nodules per plant, mineral content of plant (Na, K, Ca, Mg, N, and P). The soil chemical characteristics examined before and after the Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 execution of the experiment were: the electrical conductivity of the saturation extract (ECe), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and mineral content of the soil (mmol+/L). The results obtained showed that application of FYM Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 significantly increased the shoot dry weight after 8 weeks from sowing and number of branches and nodules after 10 weeks from sowing. Contents of potassium and calcium of the plants and the soil pH, sodium adsorption Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 ratio (SAR) and the phosphorus content were significantly increased. This increase was achieved with 15 or 20 ton/ha FYM. Application of CHM resulted in a significant increase in shoot dry weight, number Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 of branches and root fresh after 8 weeks from sowing and the number of nodules after 10 weeks from sowing. The nitrogen content of plant, EC and Mg content in the soil Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 were significantly increased. This increase was achieved with 2 tons/ha CHM. The interaction between FYM and CHM gave significant increase in root fresh weight after 8 weeks; shoot dry weight after 10 weeks the Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 number of nodules/plant after 12 week from sowing, nitrogen and phosphorus contents of plant, EC and SAR in the soil were also significantly increased.


^ Chemical Fertilizers and Pesticides in Khartoum State - Sudan: Handling, Uses Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 and their Consequences


Fayga H. B. Awad and Mutasim M. M. Elrasheed

dept. of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agricultural Studies, Sudan University of Science and Technology, P. O. Box 71 Shambat Sudan.


Abstract:

The world had Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 witnessed intensive use of fertilizers and pesticides (chemical) in agriculture to satisfy the ever growing needs of the fast population growth. The results were irrational handling and uses of those chemicals and Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 negative impact on agricultural production and human health. This study aimed at examining the uses and handling of chemical fertilizers and pesticides between the farmers and distributing companies and their consequences on Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 agricultural production and human health. The study was conducted on season 2007 in the northern part of Khartoum State, particularly Elshihainab and wad Ramely villages.

Both primary and secondary data Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 sources were used. Non probability sampling technique (snow ball) were used to collect the data from 192 farmers from the two villages, representing (10%) of the total population of each of the two villages. Secondary data Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 were collect from the related institutions and books and periodicals. Descriptive statistical technique was used to reach to the stated objectives.

Results revealed that, all farmers in the study area used chemical Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 fertilizers and pesticides in their farming. Further, they handle the chemical fertilizers and pesticides in inappropriate manner; as the majority of them (94%) buy their chemicals directly from the traders without having Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 adequate advice and direction on optimum uses and storage, even if they have, only (45%) of them adopt the corrected advices. On the other хэнд, most of the farmers in the study Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 areas handle the remaining quantities of fertilizers and/or pesticides incorrectly, as (40%) of them store the rest of their chemicals in their houses without due consideration and about 45% of them store it near drinking water Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 sources. Results also revealed that, there were wide spread of diseases (cancer, asthma, abortion …) that related to inappropriate uses of chemicals in the study areas, and the majority of the Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 farmers believe on chemicals as sources of these diseases. The over all consequences, were poor production and farmers income. the study recommends the uses of organic fertilizers and pesticides on agriculture.


^ Contribution Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 of chicken manure on soil chemical and physical properties compared with urea and superphosphate fertilizers.

Mohamed Abdalla Abbas1, Saifeldin M. El-Amin2& Elamin Abdelmagid Elamin 3

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Upper Nile Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 21

College of Agricultural studies, Sudan University of Science and Technology2.

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum3.


Abstract: The experiment was conducted at the College of Agricultural Studies Sudan University of Sciences and Technology farm Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 Shambat. During the growing seasons 2005-2006, 2006-2007 and 2007-2008.Different levels of chicken manure 10m3 , 15 m3 , 20 m3 chicken manure compared with Urea + super phosphate 125-62.5 Kg respectively. Egg plant black beauty cultivar was used. The Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 soil chemical analysis showed that chicken manure at 30cm depth revealed that the value of pH , Ca+, Mg+, K+, P+, total N; NH4-N, O.C. and O.M, were higher Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 in the chicken manure plots than that of urea + superphosphate . The moisture content was kept higher in chicken plots than that of urea + superphosphate. Clay and silt particles were higher but sand particles were Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 lower in chicken manure plots compared with urea + superphosphate treatments.


^ The Effect of Heat-treated Compost on Nodulation, Growth, Yield, and Morphological Yield Components of Cluster bean (Guar) Cyamposis tetragonoloba (L Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2.) Taub Grown on Shambat Alkaline Clay Soil.


Salma Fathelrahman and Sami A. M. Hamid *

* Department of Agronomy, Sudan University of Science and Technology


Cluster bean (Guar) Cyamposis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub is a Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 leguminous crop adapted to arid and semi-arid environments. It is known as a multi-purpose crop, that the young pods are eaten as vegetable, the seeds are used as cattle Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 feed in India and Pakistan. The seed flour is exceptionally viscous possessing 5-8 times the thickness power of starch. It used in paper industry, textile, food products eg bakery and dairy products. And Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 recently in petroleum oil industry. It is regarded as a promising summer rotation crop, since it is capable of biological N2-fixation. Generally the degree of nodulation was proved to be hindered when legumes Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 grown on alkaline heavy-textured soils. In order to improve nodulation of guar, a field experiment was carried out at the demonstration farm of the College of Agricultural Studies-Shambat Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 in the summer season of 2009. Heat-treated compost was used to improve the soil aeration, neutralize the soil-pH, and enhance the mobilization of the soil nutrition. A completely randomized block design with three Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 replicates was used for this purpose. The treatments were control, compost, inoculum, and inoculum + compost. The results revealed that very poor nodulation due to inoculation as well as compost application. Further research Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 is strongly recommended with special emphasis on using the proper strain of Rhizobium, and the application of proper-treated organic material.


Samial48@windowslive.com


The Impact of Different Sources of Organic Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 Material on Growth, Yield and Components of Forage Sorghum Sorghum biocolor L. Moench cv. Abu Sabein Grown on Shambat Alkaline Clay Soil.


Nuseiba N. Abddo and Sami A. M. Hamid *

* Department Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 of Agronomy, Sudan University of Science and Technology


Forage Sorghum Sorghum biocolor L. Moench is the most important cereal forage crop in the Sudan. It ranks first; area-wise, in the summer seasons Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 of the Khartoum state. The traditional practice used, is to apply mineral nitrogen fertilizer at the rate of IN (IN: 43Nkg/ha) as urea in most cases. However, the organic fertilizers have the Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 advantage over the minerals in improving the physical properties and enhance the mobilization of the soil nutrients. Accordingly, a field experiment was carried out at the demonstration farm of the Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 College of Agricultural Studies-Shambat in the summer season of 2009. For this purpose a randomized complete block design was used with three replicates. The treatments were composed of two raw manures, heat-treated compost Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2, NPK at the rate containing IN for comparison, and a control treatment. The results showed no statistically significant differences among the characters evaluated except the relative growth rate. Further research Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 in this area is strongly recommended. Emphasis should be put on the application of proper-treated organic materials for increasing the yield.


Samial48@windowslive.com


Critical period of weed control in carrot Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 (^ Daucus carota L.)

Nasr Eldin Khairi Abdalla

Agricultural Research Corporation. Shendi Research Station

Abstract

An experiment was undertaken, at Shendi Research Station, for two consecutive seasons (2008/09 and 2009/10) with objective of determining the critical period of weed/carrot Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 interference. The total umber of weed per m2 in the weedy control was 112 – 226. The dominant weed species were Brachiaria eruciformis, Panicum hygrocharis, Echinochloa. colona, Amaranthus spp., Ipomoea spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Convolvulus arvensis Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2, Peta vulgaris and Chrozophora plicata. Weed population density, weed ground cover and weed biomass increased with the weedy period and decreased with the weed free period. Carrot growth and yield Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 progressively increased with the weed free period and decreased with the weedy period. Unrestricted weed interference reduced crop stand, carrot length, carrot diameter and yield by 81, 77, 61 and 92%, respectively. The crop kept weed Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 free for 2 to 6 weeks after sowing then weedy afterwards displayed crop stand comparable to the full season weedy control. Extending the weed free period to 8 weeks or more resulted in crop stand Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 comparable to the full season weed free control. Carrot kept weedy for the first 2 to 6 WAS then weed free till harvest displayed crop stand comparable to the weed free control. Carrot Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 kept weed free for 2 weeks then weedy afterwards or remained weedy for 8 to 10 weeks exhibited similar diameter to the weedy control. Carrot, kept weed free for 4 to 10 weeks or weedy for 2 to 6 weeks Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 then weed free till harvest displayed a diameter comparable to the weed free control. The crop kept weed free for the first 2 to 4 weeks then weedy afterwards displayed yield comparable to the full season Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 weedy control. On the other хэнд, the crop kept weed free for the first 6 weeks or more resulted in yield comparable to the weed free control. The crop kept Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 weedy for the first 2 to 6 weeks then weed free till harvest exhibited yield comparable to the weed free control. The crop kept weedy for 8 weeks or more resulted in yield comparable to Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 the weedy control.


^ Effect of organic manures on yield of rain-fed Sorghum in Gedarif area


Ibrahim Elsadig Ibrahim, Elasha A. Elasha and Ali El-Toum Hassan

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Gadarif


Abstract

A Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 field experiment was executed for two consecutive seasons (2007/08 and 2008/09), at the Northern and Southern areas of Gedarif state, to investigate the impact of the addition of organic manures on yield of rain Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2-fed sorghum. The organic fertilizer’s used were farm yard manure (FYM) and chicken manure (CM). Four levels of each manure were applied (5 ton/ha, 10 tons/ha, 15 tons/ha, 20 tons/ha and control Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2. The treatments were arranged in a factorial RCBD with three replications.

The data showed that the addition of organic manures resulted in a significant differences among all measured parameters which were plant height Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 (PH),number of heads/meter square (No. of hds/m2), total grain yield (TGY), 1000 seed weight (1000SW) and straw yield compared to the control.

On conclusion the addition of organic manures resulted in Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 a significant increase in rain-fed sorghum yield. Chicken manures (CD4) scored the maximum sorghum yield (6042.8 and 3986.2 kg/ha) for 2007/08 and 2008/09 seasons, respectively.


^ Producing phytochemicals with high antioxidant activity from three plants Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 as organic food sources


Abdalbasit Adam Mariod, and Yousif Mohamed Ahmed

1Food Science & Technology Department, College of Agricultural Studies, Sudan University of Science & Technology, P.O Box 71 Khartoum North, Sudan.

Plants are Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 considered a good source of important phytochemicals with high antioxidant activity. Wild fruits and seeds are being considered because their constituents have unique nutritional and functional properties, Sclerocarya birrea, Salvadora persica, and Monechma ciliatum Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 are popular Sudanese plants distributed in many states where the leaves, stem bark, root, fruits and seeds are used in food and traditional medicine. The seeds of the three plants Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 were rich in oil and protein. The oils contain oleic, palmitic, myristic, and stearic acids. The extracts from different plants parts showed high total phenolic compounds and radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities. Sclerocarya Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 birrea is widely studied with regard to its antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiparasitic, antimicrobial, and antihypertenisve activities. The fruit of Sclerocarya birrea is rich in ascorbic acid and its fruit juice contains Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 sesquiterpene hydrocarbon

The methanolic extracts of ^ Salvadora persica leaves (SPL), bark (SPB), and seedcake (SPC) in both samples were markedly effective in inhibiting the oxidation of linoleic acid and subsequent bleaching of Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 ß-carotene in comparison with the control. But they were less effective than BHA. The oil and meal from Monechma ciliatum (black mahlab) seeds were characterized for their physico-chemical properties. The oil content Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 was found to be 13.15%. The major fatty acids were palmitic 4.5%, stearic 16.0%, oleic 47.3% and linoleic 31.4% in black mahlab (BMO). A moderate amount of tocopherols were found at 45.2 mg/100 g, in Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 BMO. Protein content was found to be 21% in black. The total amount of amino acids in black was found to be 783.3. The antioxidant potential of phenolic rich fractions (PRFs) and methanolic extract (ME), ethyl acetate Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 extract (EAE), and hexane extract (HE) from Monechma ciliatum leaves (MCL) was evaluated, both the extraction yield and the antioxidant activity were strongly dependent on the solvent. Among the extracts Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2, ME exhibited highest total phenolic content and IC50 values for DPPH, followed by EAE and HE, respectively. As a general trend, increased antioxidant activity was observed for increased extract concentration. The Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 predominant phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC-DAD.


^ Producing Phytochemicals with High Antioxidant Activity from Two Edible Insects as Organic Food Source

Abdalbasit A. Mariod*, and Yousif M. Ahmed

*Food Science & Technology Department, College of Agricultural Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 Studies, Sudan University of Science & Technology, P.O Box 71 Khartoum North, Sudan.


Phytochemicals like amino acid, fatty acid and phenolic compounds were investigated in two edible insect Aspongubus viduatus (melon bug Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2) and Agonoscelis pubescens (Sorghum bug). The approximate analysis of Aspongubus viduatus, and Agonoscelis pubescens adult showed 8.3 and 7.6% moisture, 27.0 and 28.2% crude protein, 54.2 and 57.3% fat and 3.5 and 2.5% ash on a dry matter basis Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2, respectively. The bug proteins contained 16 known amino acids, including all of the essential amino acids. The most predominant fatty acids in melon bug oil were oleic, palmitic, linoleic, and linolenic acids representing 45.5, 31.3, 4.9 and 0.48%, respectively Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2, while in sorghum bug oil representing 41.15, 11.41, 35.28 and 1.28%, respectively. The total polyphenol contents of the polar fraction of the two insects oils obtained by extraction with methanol showed that melon bug oil Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 has the highest amount of total phenolic compounds followed by sorghum bug oil. The HPLC was used to detect phenolic compounds in a methanol extract of melon and sorghum bug oils, t-cinnamic and Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 syringic acids, quercetin and pelargonin were identified in melon bug oil while in sorghum bug oil vanillic, sinapic and o-coumaric acid, and quercetin were identified. The antioxidant activity determined by the Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 DPPH method reveals that the melon bug oil extract had the highest antioxidant activity on DPPH free radicals followed by sorghum bug oil; only 0.13 mg extract of melon bug oil was Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 necessary to reach 50% loss in DPPH while in case of SBO 0.8 milligrams were used. Melon bug crude oil and the phenolic compounds-free oil showed high antibacterial activities against six test Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 species. Differential scanning chromatography and FTIR were used to study the physical and thermal properties of gelatine extracted from melon and sorghum bug the obtained gelatine was found to be a good source Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 for different food products.


^ THE ECONOMICS OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN SUDAN

Dr. Saeed Mohamed Suliman

saeedsuliman@hotmail.com


Sudan has great potential for increased organic agricultural production, especially in the traditional rain-fed Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 areas, and along the banks of rivers. This type of organic agricultural production, in which the use of chemicals mainly pesticides and fertilizers is restricted, excludes the high cost of these Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 agricultural inputs, which are necessary to increase the productivity of inorganic agriculture. Eventually, this makes the cost of organic farming relatively low compared to the inorganic agricultural farming. However, organic farming benefits from Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 the recycling of plant and animal by-products as organic fertilizers. In addition, considerable amount of fertile silt is deposited by the annual flooding along the banks of the rivers.

Moreover, it is known Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 that the price of the weight unit of organic agricultural products are higher than that of the same weight of the same product produced in organically. The objective of Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 this study is to calculate and compare the percentage of the same product (tomato) organically produced to that is produced inorganically in the same area (feddan).


Utilization of Argel (^ Solenostemma argel Del. Hyne.) and Usher Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 (Calotropis procera Ait.) powders and aqueous extracts for Controlling the Green Pit Scale Insect (Asterolicanium phoenicis Rao.) (Homoptera: Asterolicaniidae) on Date Palm


Awad K. Taha 1, Khalid O.A.M. Eldoush 1 and Omar A Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2.A. Sidahmed 2

1 Department of Plant Protection, College of Agricultural Studies, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Shambat - Sudan. 2 Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman - Sudan.

Abstract Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2: A field study was conducted at Alghaba Agricultural Scheme, Northern State, Sudan, to investigate the effects of argel (Solenostemma argel Del.Hyne.) and usher (Calotropis procera Ait.) powders and aqueous extracts Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 on immature stages of the green pit scale insect (Asterolicanium phoenicis Rao.). The experiments were conducted at two sites, Gharb Dongola and Elkinduwa villages. Two applications were мейд at each site Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 during the date season of 2007 ( in January and in May). Within each site, 4 rows, each containing 5 date palm trees (cv. Barakawi) of similar age, were selected randomly. Each date palm tree represented a Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 replicate. The treatments were laid in a Completely Randomized Design, with 4 replicates. Argel and Usher powders were applied each at three dosage rates (100 g. powder/ tree as a soil dressing, 100 g. powder Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 /10 Liter tap water/ tree for spraying and 100 g. powder as soil dressing + 100 g. powder /10 Liter tap water as spray/ tree). The insecticide Actara 25 W.G. (Thimethoxam, a neonicotinoid) was used as a standard treatment Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2. Counts of immature stages were мейд at 14 days intervals. From each palm, 2 leaflets were randomly detached from each direction. An area of 1cm² at the base, the middle and Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 the tip of each leaflet was examined under a binocular microscope, and percentage mortality of the immature stages was determined. An average mortality of 50% of the immature stages were obtained with Argel and Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 Usher treatments. The standard insecticide Actara showed an average mortality of 58%. Accordingly, it could be concluded that, Argel and Usher, at 100 g./ tree, applied to soil effected comparable mortality to Actara Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 at 20 g./ tree and could be recommended as an alternative treatment for the control of immature stages of the date palm green pit scale insect.

Key words: Alghaba, Asterolicanium phoenicis, Solenostemma argel Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2, Calotropis procera.


^ CHALLENGES FOR TRANSTIONING CONVENTIONAL FARMING IN THE SUDAN TO ORGANIC


Mohamed Ahamed Bushara

Peace University, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies


Abstract: A widely used definition of organic agriculture is the one provided by the Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), which defines it as a production system which voids or largely excludes the use of synthetically compounded fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators and livestock feed additives. To Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 the maximum extent feasible, organic farming systems rely upon crop rotation, crop residues, animal manure, legumes, green manure, off-farm organic wastes, mechanical cultivation, mineral supply bearing rocks and aspects of biological Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 pest control to maintain soil productivity and tilh, to supply plant nutrients and to control insects, weeds and other pests. Therefore, organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 benefit the shared environment and to sustain and optimize the health and productivity of interdependent communities of soil life, plants, animals and people.

In the terminology of organic agriculture, conversion from conventional farming Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 to organic has a very specific meaning. In order to grasp it one has to keep in mind that organic agriculture, in the modern sense of the term, is a highly regulated form of Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 ecological agriculture as it adheres to legally defined standards and norms of production, processing and labeling. The legalities of organic agriculture are codified in a number of formal standards that define the Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 regimes that producers or processors need to work within in order to claim organic status. These organic standards besides stipulating the prohibition of use of certain inputs also demands strict Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 adherence to a range of practices by the farm.

The paper focuses on the process of conversion from a conventional regime to an organic system which requires complete deterrence from application Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 of chemical inputs, significant changes at the farm level particularly within soil and major changes in the attitudes of the farmers, besides other costs and obstacles that affect transition process. On the Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 otherhand, the paper highlights the chances and prospects in favor of organic farming in the Sudan.


^ The impact of the use of some waste on the production of organic potatoes classified Desire
* Omar Hashim Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 ALMohammedi / Faculty of Agriculture, Anbar University
Fadel Hussein ALSahaf / Faculty of Agriculture University of Baghdad
Alaa Saleh Ati / Faculty of Agriculture University of Baghdad


An experiment was carried out in the Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 experimental field of Horticulture Dept., College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad for two seasons (Fall 2006 and spring 2007)to produce potato by organic fertilization. In fall season, class A seed tubers while in spring season, class Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 Elite of the cv. Desiree potato was used. Two experiment were designed, first was the use three sources of organic fertilizers (Poultry, cattle and sheep manure)in addition to conventional mineral Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 fertilizer and no fertilization (control) treatment. In second experiment, cattle manure fertilizer in addition to why were used. Results could be summarized as follows: Soil treated with 10% poultry manures hasten the field emergence Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 and was 26.21 and 27.14 days. Cattle manure at 15% with whey had the lowest number of days for field emergence in both seasons (28.97 and 29.68 days respectively).Manure treatment regardless the source and cattle Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 manure 15% +whey all caused 100% emergence for booth seasons. Greatest number of stems was found when 10% poultry manure (4.60 and 4.52 stem/plant) and 15%cattle manure with whey (4.44 and 4.36 stem/plant)for the two Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 seasons respectively ).Total leaf area on the other хэнд was found in mineral fertilized plants for both seasons (34.30 and 33.30 dm 2/plant respectively ).Greatest dry matter weight was found with 10% poultry manure treatment (56.29 and Sudan University of science and Technology (sust) - 2 55.27 g/plant)and with 15% cattle manure and whey (56.20and 55.16 g/ plant) for the two seasons respectively.



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